Electric Car How Long To Charge – If you’re familiar with electric vehicles (EVs), you’ve probably heard the terms 1, 2 and 3 charge in relation to charging speed. Level 3 charging, also known as DC fast charging, is the fastest way to charge an electric car, charging most vehicles in minutes rather than hours.
In short, Level 3 charging delivers more power and is faster, making it the ideal charging type for mobile locations such as gas stations or boat docks. Because of the high voltage power required for Level 3 charging (and the higher cost), you generally won’t see DC fast chargers installed in residential areas – they’re better suited to commercial buildings with sufficient power supplies. So, how fast is level 3 charging? What kind of factors can affect loading speed? Read on to learn everything you need to know about 3-speed chargers. How do charging stations work? Before we get into fast charging, it is necessary to have a basic understanding of how charging works. Alternating current and direct current There are two types of current that can fuel a car: alternating current (AC) and direct current (DC). All batteries – including those used in electric vehicles – are charged with direct current. However, electricity from the grid is alternating current in nature. Therefore, to charge an EV, alternating current from the grid must be converted to direct current for use with the battery. This is done with an AC/DC converter. The main difference between phase 3 (DC) charging and phase 1 and 2 (AC) charging is where the conversion takes place. Level 3 chargers convert AC power to DC power inside the charging station — allowing DC to flow directly from the charging station itself to the EV’s battery. With more space for larger converters, DC chargers can convert power very quickly. That’s why some DC power plants can deliver up to 350 kW and fully charge an electric car in 15 minutes. Level 1 and Level 2 chargers, in turn, send AC to the EV, which is converted to DC by a small charger. Due to the limited space in the car, the size of the charger is also limited. This is why level 2 (AC) chargers have a maximum speed of around 22 kW – 43 kW. So, now that we know the basics, let’s take a closer look at what affects loading speed. How does level 3 charge speed affect it? Many factors affect the charging speed, but it mainly depends on the performance, the type of vehicle and the charge level of the battery. 1. Power Output Charging Station As we learned earlier, DC charging stations charge faster than AC charging stations because they have more room for larger converters. However, not all DC charging stations (Level 3 chargers) are the same. They come in all shapes and sizes, and for the same reason: the bigger the converter, the more power a stage 3 charger can deliver. The structure of a DC charging station can also have a significant impact on performance. One station consists of one unit that can transmit power from about 50 kW to 250 kW. A discrete architecture, on the other hand, consists of two parts: the client-facing user module and the power supply module behind it. Since all units are dedicated to converting and transmitting electricity, building plants can generally deliver more power – from 175 kW to 350 kW. To give you an idea of the difference, an hour’s charge at an independent 50 kW charging station gives about 278 kilometers. By comparison, a 15-minute charge at a 350 kW stand-alone charging station can cover 480 km – almost double in a quarter of the time. 2. Type of vehicle and its battery Although the amount of power is important in determining the charging time, the vehicle itself is the ultimate owner. When designing an electric vehicle, car manufacturers make a number of decisions: About the size, weight, performance and life of the battery used. Let’s look at how these decisions affect DC charging times. Battery Capacity Some electric vehicles support more power than others. Take the high-end Tesla Model 3 for example, which has a fast charging capacity of 250 kilowatts, while the flagship Peugeot e-208 supports 50 kilowatts. The same applies to different types of vehicles. An electric car can carry 50 kilowatts, while a truck or bus can carry 300 kilowatts. In general, the larger the battery, the faster it will support charging. The chemistry of the battery and the target audience of the vehicle for which it is made can also affect the charging speed at stage 3. Common models may reduce the quality of the battery to keep costs down. A luxury car, on the other hand, may contain a more powerful battery, but at a much higher price. Temperature also plays an important role in determining the charging rate. Battery cells work most efficiently between 20–25°C (68–77°F). In addition, weather conditions, highway and city driving, and fast charging all affect battery temperature. If the temperature is too low or too high, the vehicle’s battery management system (BMS) will reduce the power supply to protect the battery, thus reducing the charging rate. Many high-end electric vehicles are equipped with heating or cooling systems to control the temperature of the battery, while some entry-level vehicles do not – a clear indication of why the type of vehicle matters when it comes to charging speed. 3. State of charge The state of charge of the battery relative to its full capacity also affects the charging time. To extend the life of the battery and prevent overheating, the charging speed will decrease significantly when the battery is almost full. Therefore, DC fast charging is most efficient between 0% and 80%. Charging the remaining 20% battery will take about the same time as the first 80% charge, which may not be very economical if you’re paying by the minute. How long does it take to charge an EV with Level 3 charging? Due to different vehicles and batteries, different fast charging stations with different capacities and other factors that can affect the speed of charging, it is impossible to answer this question with certainty. However, we can give you an accurate estimate of how long it will take to fast charge your car for each vehicle type (based on average battery size) and power level. Type of large electric cars passenger cars EV light truck and bus truck and bus Average battery size (right) Capacity (bottom) 50 kWh 75 kWh 100 kWh 200 kWh 300 kWh 50 kWh 53 min 1 h 20 min 1 h 200 kWh 5 h 23 min 90 kW 30 min 1 h 2 h 3 h 120 kW 22 min 33 min 44 min 1 h 30 min 2 h 14 min 150 kW 18 min 27 min 36 min 1 h 12 min 1 h 48 min 180k h min 4 k h min 010 min 180 min min 22 min 44 min 1 h 7 min 300 kW 8 min 13 min 17 min 35 min 53 min 350 kW 7 min 11 min 15 min 30 min 46 min Battery charge from 20% to 80 Average time % State of charge (SoC ). FYI only: does not reflect exact billing time. Do all electric vehicles support fast charging level 3? Level 3 charging is suitable for most electric vehicles. However, as we learned above, different vehicles have different battery capacities and some models can get more power than others. In addition, a small percentage of electric vehicles and plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs) are not compatible with fast charging at all – because their batteries are so small. To get the most out of stage 3 charging, it’s important to know if the car supports DC charging and if so, what is the maximum capacity it supports. Want to learn more about Level 3 charging and types of fast chargers? Find everything you need to know about fast charging, including answers to frequently asked questions, on our website. Find out what Level 3 charging means for your business. Read our free e-book for an overview of all electric car fast charging options, how they differ, and what to look for before investing.
Electric Car How Long To Charge
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